Annotated Bibliography

What is your racial identification? (Mark only one)

Bush, E.C., & Bush, L. (2005). Black male achievement and the community college. Black Issues in Higher Education, 22(2), 44.

A recent review of community college data from the California chancellor's office reveals that African-American men are the lowest-performing subgroup in the percentage of degrees earned, persistence rates, and average cumulative grade point average. These findings suggest that community colleges must take a close look at their missions, develop practices that will best assist students to reach their academic goals despite their demographic or educational background, and specifically address the educational needs of African-American men by developing formal mentorship programs.



Kaba, A. (2005). Progress of African Americans in higher education: The widening gender gap and its current and future implications. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13(25), 1-32.

African-Americans have made substantial progress in higher education attainment since the 1970s, but African-American males have not been performing as well as their female counterparts. Research shows that most African-American males do succeed in school and in the workplace and that undergraduate enrollment among African-American males increased between 1994 and 2000. However, African-American females are outperforming their male counterparts in higher education attainment and, as a result, are now in a position to take up more leadership positions within the African-American community in the coming years. The gains made by African-Americans in the attainment of higher education since the 1970s are examined in detail, and the reasons or factors responsible for the higher education gap between African-American males and females are discussed.



Murphy, A.J. (2005). Money, money, money. An exploratory study on the financial literacy of Black college students. College Student Journal, 39(3), 478-488.

This exploratory research examined 277 survey responses to assess the influence of race, gender, age, major and parental educational level on the financial knowledge of undergraduate students attending a predominantly Black institution. The overall level of financial literacy was only about 3 correct questions out of 10. Analysis of variance results showed valuable differences in the mean financial literacy scores for all variables, except race. The logistic regression had somewhat different results; race, major, and parental educational level were important factors in explaining whether students would have higher or lower levels of financial acumen. Age and major did not have noteworthy results in the logistic regression. Overall, the findings suggest that majority Black universities have an opportunity to more intentionally expose their students to a broad range of financial literacy topics so they are better prepared to meet the financial challenges of living as completely independent adult professionals.



Phillips, C.D. (2005). A comparison between African-American and white students enrolled in an equal-opportunity program on predominantly white college campuses: Perceptions of the campus environment. College Student Journal, 39(2), 298-306.

This article compares the campus environmental perceptions of African-American and White students enrolled in an equal opportunity program on predominantly White campuses. These are students who are trying to overcome socioeconomic and academic challenges in their quest to become college graduates. The survey instrument measured marginality and mattering perceptions of these students. The results indicated that African-American students did feel marginalized. Conversely, White students were not aware of the different challenges that African-American students were experiencing on campus. It is evident that African-American students within these programs have three major barriers to overcome in this environment including racial, socioeconomic, and academic issues.



Zusho, A., Pintrich, P.R., & Cortina, K.S. (2005). Motives, goals, and adaptive patterns of performance in Asian American and Anglo American students. Learning and Individual Differences, 15(2), 141-158.

A study examined the relationships between achievement motives, achievement goals, and motivational outcomes on a mathematics task among Asian-American and Anglo-American students. Data were obtained from 105 Asian-American and 98 Anglo-American students at a large Midwestern university. Results revealed that Asian-American students had higher levels of fear of failure, anxiety, performance avoidance goals, and mathematics performance than Anglo-American students. However, links among motives, goals, and outcomes were found to be similar for both groups.



Guiffrida, D. (2005). To break away or strengthen ties to home: A complex issue for African American college students attending a predominantly white institution. Equity & Excellence in Education, 38(1), 49-60.

A study examined the ways in which African-American students at a predominantly white institution perceived their families as influencing their academic achievement and persistence. Data were obtained from 99 African-Americans at a midsize, predominantly white, private research institution in the Northeast. Findings from leavers and low achievers suggested that many students perceived their obligations to their families as contributing to their attrition or poor academic performance. However, findings also indicated that high-achieving African-American students viewed their families as among their most important assets at college. The characteristics of families that students believed to support or hinder their academic success are described, and the implications of the study for improving African-American college student retention theory and practice are discussed.



Castillo, L.G., Conoley, C.W., & Brossart, D.F. (2004). Acculturation, white marginalization, and family support as predictors of perceived distress in Mexican American female college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(2), 151-157.

This study examined the influence of psychosociocultural variables of acculturation, White attitudinal marginalization, family support, and income on perceived distress in 247 Mexican American female college students. Participants were bicultural and attended primarily White universities in the West and Southwest. Results showed that comfort with White cultural values, perceived support from family, and financial support are related to lower perceived distress for participants. Implications for counselors addressing perceived distress in Mexican American female college students are provided.



Chiang, L., Hunter, C.D., & Yeh, C.J. (2004). Coping attitudes, sources, and practices among Black and Latino college students. Adolescence, 39(Winter 2004), 793-815.

We investigated 130 Black and Latino college students regarding their concerns, attitudes toward professional counseling, sources of support, and coping activities. We found that the Black and Latino cultural emphasis on interdependence influenced attitudes toward using professional resources such as a counselor. We also found a significant two-way interaction between gender and race for attitudes toward professional counseling: Black males had less favorable attitudes in comparison to Black females, while Latino males had more favorable attitudes than did Latino females. Both Black and Latino college students had favorable attitudes toward informal support networks. Differences between Black and Latino college students were found for reported concerns and coping sources. Implications for counseling theory, practice, and research are discussed.



Guiffrida, D.A. (2004). Friends from home: Asset and liability to African American students attending a predominantly white institution. NASPA Journal (Online), 41(4), 693-708.

The importance of connections with peers to student development and retention has been highlighted in Astin's (1984) Theory of Student Involvement and Tinto's (1993) Theory of Student Departure, which are two of the most widely referenced and validated models in student affairs literature. However, recent research has questioned the applicability of these models to African American students who attend predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Although prior research has indicated that the models should be modified to recognize the importance of students' relationships with their families, research has failed to understand the impact of relationships with friends from home. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the conditions under which friends from home were perceived as assets or liabilities to 99 African American undergraduates who attended a PWI. The results provide a link for broadening the applicability of Astin's and Tinto's models and offer student affairs practitioners deeper insight into African American students' experiences at PWIs.



Karunanayake, D., & Nauta, M.M. (2004). The relationship between race and students' identified career role models and perceived role model influence. The Career Development Quarterly, 52(3), 225-234.

The authors examined whether college students' race was related to the race of their identified career role models, the number of identified career role models, and their perceived influence from such models. Consistent with A. Bandura's (1977, 1986) social learning theory, students tended to have role models whose race was the same as their own, and this finding held among career role models who were not members of students' families. Caucasian and racial minority students did not differ respecting overall number of, and perceived influence from, career role models. Career intervention and research implications are discussed.



Laden, B.V. (2004). Hispanic-serving community colleges. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 28(3), 177-295.

This is a special issue on Hispanic-serving community colleges. Articles discuss the history of Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs), the educational conditions of Latinos, and the increasing importance of HSIs for this population; Los Angeles Community College District's special efforts to help Latinos to succeed; a study that examined two HSIs and the innovative transfer agreements they have with a highly selective private women's college; a case study that examined the transfer process for Latina/o students at Esperanza Community College; a study that examined the path leading to a certificate or associate of applied science degree for Hispanic students; a study that examined the effects of alternative institutional placement policies on student academic success at a HSI; and a study that investigated the study behaviors of Spanish-speaking Hispanic students at one Hispanic-serving community college and at two Mexican universities. An introduction to the special issue is provided.



Lundberg, C.A., & Schreiner, L.A. (2004). Quality and frequency of faculty-student interactions as predictors of learning: An analysis by student race/ethnicity. Journal of College Student Development, 45(5), 549-565.

A study examined interactions between faculty members and students and their links to learning by student race/ethnicity. Participants were 4,501 undergraduate students of seven racial/ethnic groups who completed the College Student Experiences Questionnaire in the period 1998-2001. Results revealed that relationships with faculty members were stronger predictors of learning for all groups than student background characteristics but were strongest for students of color. Implications for practice are outlined.



Zurita, M. (2004). Stopping out and persisting: Experiences of Latino undergraduates. Journal of College Student Retention, 6(3), 301-324.

A study examined the experiences of Latino undergraduate students at a large university in the Midwest. Data were obtained from ten Latino students, five of whom persisted through graduation and five of whom "stopped out" or failed to maintain continuous enrollment in college. Findings revealed similarities between the two groups with regard to home environments, a lack of social integration, and feelings of academic unpreparedness. However, findings also highlighted differences between the two groups relating to academic difficulties, home-to-school transition, high school segregation, anticipatory socialization, first contact with the university, and education and career goals.



Landry, C.C. (2003). Retention of women and people of color: Unique challenges and institutional responses. College Student Retention Research, Theory & Practice, 4(1), 1-13.

A literature review on retention as it relates explicitly to women and people of color suggests that specific and unique factors play a part in student persistence. Despite the gains made in enrollment on college campuses, this group of students seems to have a particularly difficult time completing degree requirements. This article reflects on key variables that affect persistence in this group of students as well as institutional responses to the retention problem. Also, the need for curricular reform to address the experiences of minorities and women and the need for gender equality in the classroom are discussed.



Hagedorn, L.S., Maxwell, W., & Hampton, P. (2002). Correlates of retention for African-American males in community colleges. College Student Retention Research, Theory & Practice, 3(3), 243.

The retention rates of African-American men in community colleges are among the lowest of all ethnic groups nationally. This study analyzes organizational data for three cohorts of men in a longitudinal design for the three semesters (N=202), and uses logistic regression to identify the factors that best predict retention. The importance of high school grades, age, number of courses, a positive view of personal skills, clear high goals, and the early identification of a college major appear to be salient for this group and offer implications for practice.



Swigart, T.E., & Murrell, P.H. (2001). Factors influencing estimates of gains made among African-American and Caucasian community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 25(4), 297-312.

At the heart of Pace's theory (1979, 1984) is the notion that what students gain from college is largely determined by the breadth and amount of effort they exert toward their education. Pace and his colleagues have operationally defined this construct in the Quality of Effort scales of the Community College Student Experiences Questionnaire (Friedlander, Pace, & Lehman, 1999). Student development theory (Miller & Winston, 1990) has suggested that the unique influences on growth between and among students of differing ethnic backgrounds should not be overlooked. This study examined whether African-American and Caucasian students attending a two-year college differed in the relationship between the quality of their efforts exerted toward important educational objectives and their perceptions of growth and development in academic and nonacademic domains. The results suggest that the relationship between student effort and self-reported gains are not the same for African-American and Caucasian students. When background variables were statistically controlled for, quality of effort yielded several common and unique influences on estimates of gains made for each group. African-American students reported greater gains, which were explained by the more involvement toward the completion of important educational objectives. These findings are discussed in light of Pace's theory and past research on students attending two- and four-year institutions. Limitations of the current research design are discussed and implications for faculty members, administrators and others who formulate policy and programming at community colleges are outlined as well.



Terenzini, P.T., Cabrera, A.F., Colbreck, C.L., Bjorklund, S.A., & Parente, J.M. (2001). Racial and ethnic diversity in the classroom: Does it promote student learning? The Journal of Higher Education, 72(5), 509-531.

Defendants of affirmative action are asked to demonstrate that race-sensitive admissions policies and diversity produce educational benefits for all students. This study indicates that the racial/ethnic composition of a classroom may indeed be related to the development of students' problem-solving and group skills. The nature of that effect, however, may be curvilinear.



Walker, D.A., & Schultz, A.M. (2001). Reaching for diversity: Recruiting and retaining Mexican-American students. College Student Retention Research, Theory & Practice, 2(4), 313-325.

The authors focus on creating a comprehensive model for recruiting and retaining Mexican-American students. The academic and cultural issues facing Mexican-American students, as well as how Hispanic cultural values could be addressed in a comprehensive recruitment and retention model, are presented.



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